While the Tagalog language originates from the Austronesian branch of the family from a genealogical perspective, other languages outside this branch of the family have had a heavy influence on Tagalog due to historical and cultural circumstances. This is especially true of its vocabulary, where many loan words stem from languages ranging from Spanish, Malay, English, Chinese and even Nahuatl, a language native to Mexico.
One reason is due to trade with Mexico between the 1500-1800 AD. During this time, loanwords from the Nahuatl language entered the Tagalog vocabulary. Playing a bigger role, though, is the Spanish colonization of the Philippines between 1521 to 1898, which is also known as the Spanish Colonial Period. During this period, many Spanish loanwords entered and even replaced some of the vocabulary that was used in Tagalog. In addition, the Philippines has always been a center of trade and commerce between other countries. Having such a status, many linguistic influences coming from countries that have interacted with the Philippines have shaped the evolution of Tagalog.
In terms of grammatical and phrasal features, Tagalog is unique among languages because of the flexible word order, especially compared to Western European languages. Interestingly, the verb is in the initial position in a sentence, unlike the subject being in the first position in most other languages. Moreover, nouns are usually preceded by particles that mark the case, with there being three basic cases, direct, indirect, and oblique. These features, especially the way the case is marked, is a distinct feature of Tagalog and other languages of the Philippines. One other notable feature is that there are different pronouns to address one’s conversation partner. The difference highlights politeness, social distance, and courtesy.
The Philippines is currently written using the Latin alphabet, similar to English and a plethora of other languages, especially European ones. However, the current writing system was introduced during the Spanish colonial period. Prior to this, it was written using a script called Baybayin, where there were symbols containing three vowels and 14 consonants. During the Spanish colonial period, however, the Latin Alphabet was more readily taught, despite there being high levels of literacy before this era.
After the Latin alphabet was introduced, there have been a number of reforms and changes to the writing system of Tagalog. After the adaptation of Tagalog as a national language, an alphabet consisting of 20 letters called the ABAKADA was introduced. Letters that normally exist in the English and Spanish alphabet such as C, F, J and others were absent from this version. However, in 1987, the Department of Education, Culture, and sports changed the alphabet to a 28-letter alphabet, so that family names that originated from Spanish, loan words, and other aspects of spelling can be accommodated in writing. In addition to the 26 letters that exist in the English alphabet, there is also the Spanish Ñ and Ng (considered one letter). Tagalog is written and read from left to right and there are spaces between words. The punctuation is also similar to English and other Western European languages.